IowaPost Divorce Property Division
Iowa Property Division Guide :: Table of Contents
What is property division in a Iowa divorce?
Also known as equitable distribution, property division is the process of dividing property rights and obligations between spouses during the process of a divorce. Property division may be agreed upon between the soupses through a property settlement, or it may be decided in court during the judicial process of divorce. The process of property division is affected by state laws such as community property laws, definitions of marital contributions, etc.
Iowa is an equitable distribution state, and assets acquired both during and prior to the marriage can be subject to division following divorce. Some factors considered by Iowa courts in a property division case include non-monetary contributions, contributions to a partner's education and a list of other factors defined in Iowa law. This page summarizes the most important aspects of property division laws in Iowa.
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Iowa divides marital assets via equitable distribution, which means that the court attempts to divide marital assets in a fair and equitable manner between the spouses, taking multiple factors into account in order to determine the equitable distribution for each spouse.
What Defines Equitable Division?Under Iowa law, marital property is that which is acquired or is a direct result of the labor and investments of the parties during the marriage is subject to equitable division. Equitable division does not mean marital property is divided equally, it is divided in manner that results in a fair or equitable result for each spouse.
Course will consider the contribution of each party to the marital estate; the earning capacity of each party; the age of each spouse; the desirability of awarding the family home or the right to live in the family home for a reasonable period to the party having custody of the children; the economic status of each party and; Other economic circumstances of each party
Alternatively, non-marital property or property defined as property acquired by one spouse prior to the marriage or property acquired by on spouse by gift, inheritance, bequest or devise, even though during the marriage, remains that spouse's separate property is not subject to equitable division.
Iowa Property Division FAQ
- Is Iowa a community property state?
- Does state of Iowa only divide marital property after a divorce?
- Is there a set list of statutory factors for determining property division in the state of Iowa?
- Do courts in the state of Iowa consider nonmonetary contributions?
- Does Iowa consider a spouse's economic misconduct in property division?
- Are contributions to education considered in the state of Iowa?
- Can a pre-nuptual agreement affect property division in Iowa?
- How can I enforce a property division order in Iowa?
- Dower and Curtesy in Iowa?
Is Iowa a community property state?
Iowa is NOT a community property state, which means that marital property is not automatically divided 50/50 between the spouses in a divorce case.
Instead, Iowa judges determine property division under the equitable distribution policy, which means that the court divides property between the spouses in what is believed to be a fair distribution, based on each individual's contributions to the marriage and their earning ability and needs following separation. Factors such as one spouse's economic misconduct may also be considered.
In practice, judges in an equitable-distribution state like Iowa often divide marital property with approximately 2/3 of marital assets going to the higher-earning spouse, and 1/3 going to the lower-earning spouse.
Does state of Iowa only divide marital property after a divorce?
Iowa is one of a minority of states that not only divide marital or community property acquired during the course of a marriage, but may also divide assets earned prior to the marriage regardless of which spouse is the title owner. This may result in a significant surprise for spouses who entered a marriage with high-value assets.
Is there a set list of statutory factors for determining property division in the state of Iowa?
Iowa has a list of factors set by statute that specify what the court will use to determine a fair property division. Examples of factors that are often taken into consideration during property division cases include:
- Marital Fault - In states that allow at-fault divorces, the fault of one spouse may be used by the judge to justify a higher percentage to the injured spouse.
- Income and Earning Capacity - The court may consider the relative incomes and earning capacity of each spouse, which may be affected by factors such as age, education, and health. The spouse with lower economic prospects may receive a larger percentage of the estate.
- Educational Contributions - In Iowa, spouses who contributed significantly to their partner's education or earning capacity may receive a percentage of the marital property.
- Custody of Children - If one spouse has full custody of the couple's children following the breakup, this may result in higher likelihood of receiving a higher percentage of the estate, or certain pieces of marital property (like the family house).
Do courts in the state of Iowa consider nonmonetary contributions?
In Iowa, statutory law requires judges deciding a property division case to account for the nonmonetary contributions of both spouses to a marriage when determining how to divide property between them. In practice, this generally means that the judge will consider the value of the labor a stay-at-home spouse contributed to the marriage. Nonmonetary contributions may include activities like the following:
- Household chores, cooking, homemaking
- Taking care of children
- Supporting their spouse professionally
Does Iowa consider a spouse's economic misconduct in property division?
In Iowa, there are no laws requiring courts to consider economic misconduct (aka wasting marital assets) by either spouse when determing property division. In many other states, economic misconduct can result in a higher percentage of marital property awarded to the injured spouse.
Are a spouse's contributions to their partner's education considered in the state of Iowa?
Iowa statute does provide for court consideration of a spouse's contribution to their partner's education during the course of a marriage. If one spouse supported (financially or otherwise) the other and enabled them to obtain education or other training that increased their earning power, these contributions can be considered by a Iowa judge when determining how to divide marital property.
Can a pre-nuptual agreement affect property division in Iowa?
A prenuptual agreement, or pre-nup, is a binding legal contract signed by both spouses prior to getting married in Iowa. A prenup containing a property division agreement can take precedence over Iowa's property division laws by establishing what is considered as separate vs marital property, as well as agreeing on how finances will be structured during the marriage and divided in the event of a divorce.
The existance of a valid prenuptual agreement can prevent a Iowa court from having full reign to determine how assets are divided between the spouses, and instead allow them to be divided in a way agreed to by both spouses prior to the event.
How can I enforce a property division order in Iowa?
A Iowa property division order is a court order issued by a court order issued by a judge, describing how property is to be divided between spouses following a divorce. A property division order is a binding legal obligation, and failure to comply with the terms in full by either spouse can result in being charged with contempt of court. If your spouse is not complying with a property division order, you can consult a family lawyer to discuss potential legal avenues.
Dower and Curtesy?
Curtesy abolished (§633.238); dower abolished (§633.211)